Punished peoples

Punished peoples
   Coined by the dissident historian Aleksandr Nekrich in his Punished Peoples: The Deportation and Fate of Soviet Minorities at the End of the Second World War (1978), the term refers to those ethnic minorities that were deported en masse during World War II. At the behest of Joseph Stalin, himself ethnically Georgian and Ossetian, Chechens, Ingush, Kalmyks, Balkars, Karachay, Meskhetian Turks, Crimean Tatars, and Volga Germans were packed onto cattle cars and relocated to Siberia and Central Asia; the rigors of the journey resulted in a 30–40 percent mortality rate. Under Nikita Khrushchev, these ethnic minorities were politically “rehabilitated,” but only the Chechens, Ingush, Kalmyks, Balkars, and Karachay were allowed to return to their ethnic homelands. Economic dislocation and memories of the trauma continued to plague these communities after their return to the North Caucasus and Kalmykiya; both would figure in the Ossetian-Ingush Conflict and the first Chechen War. With the coming of glasnost, more information about the deportations came to light and the Crimean Tatars, in particular, began to push for the right of return to Crimea, now in Ukraine.
   Ethnic violence between Uzbeks and the Meskhetian Turks in 1989 created a unionwide fear of general ethnic struggle, coinciding as it did with the Nagorno-Karabakh War and other incidents. Throughout the 1990s, ethnic Germans employed Germany’s law of return based on ethnicity to relocate to Europe. The term is sometimes extended to include minorities that are not indigenous to Russia, but which suffered the same fate, including Koreans, Greeks, Bulgarians, Poles, and the peoples of the Baltic States.
   See also Gorbachev, Mikhail; Uzbekistan.

Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. . 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast — This article is about the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast. For other indigenous peoples see Indigenous peoples (disambiguation) Chief Anotklosh of the Taku Tribe of the Tlingit people, ca. 1913 The Indigenous peoples of the… …   Wikipedia

  • Nakh peoples — Vainakhs on a wedding 1870 1886 …   Wikipedia

  • Nahua peoples — Nahua Total population 2,500,000 Regions with significant populations Mexico Oaxaca, Morelos, Puebla, Hidalgo, Michoacán, Veracruz, Jalisco, Estado de México, Distrito Federal, Tlaxcala, Durango and Guerrero …   Wikipedia

  • History of Chechnya — The History of Chechnya refers to the history of Chechens, Chechnya, and the land of Ichkeria. Chechen society has traditionally been organized around many autonomous local clans, called taips. The traditional Chechen saying goes that the members …   Wikipedia

  • Operation Lentil (Caucasus) — Operation Lentil (Russian: Чечевица, Chechevitsa; Chechen: Aardax, Ardakh) was the Soviet expulsion of the whole of the native Chechen and Ingush populations of the North Caucasus to Siberia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan during World War II. The… …   Wikipedia

  • Russification — (in Russian: русификация rusifikátsiya )is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non Russian communities. In a narrow sense, Russification is used to denote the influence of the… …   Wikipedia

  • Balkars — Total population 110,000 Regions with significant populations Russia: 108,426 (2002) (in Kabardino Balkaria only: 104,951),[1] Kazakhstan: 1,798 (2009) Languages Karachay …   Wikipedia

  • Crimean Tatars — (Qırımtatarlar) …   Wikipedia

  • Russianisation — Russification Fichier:Pan tnw.jpg Russification de l architecture polonaise. Façade du palais …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Russification — …   Wikipédia en Français